Wednesday, November 9, 2011


Borobudur is the name of a Buddhist temple located at Borobudur, Magelang, Central Java, Indonesia. Location of the temple is approximately 100 miles southwest of Semarang and 40 miles northwest of Yogyakarta. Stupa shaped temple was founded by the Mahayana Buddhists around the year 800 AD during the reign of the dynasty dynasty. The monument comprises six square terraces Yeng above there are three circular courtyard, the walls decorated with original 2672 relief panels and 504 Buddha statues there.  The main stupa in the middle of the largest teletak once crowned this building, surrounded by three rows of circular 72 perforated stupa in which there are statues of Buddha sitting cross-legged in the lotus position perfectly with the mudra (hand position) Dharmachakra mudra (turning the wheel of dharma).This monument was built as a shrine to honor the Buddha also functions as a place of pilgrimage to guide mankind to switch from natural earthly passions to the truth to achieve enlightenment and wisdom according to the teachings of Buddha. The pilgrims enter through the east side starting at the base of the temple ritual of walking round the sacred building in a clockwise direction, while continuing to go up to the next steps in the sphere through three levels of Buddhist cosmology. The third level is Kamadhatu (sphere lust), Rupadhatu (sphere shape), and Arupadhatu (intangible realm). In this journey of pilgrims walking through the hallway and staircase with a series of witnessed no less than 1460 beautifully carved relief panels on the wall and balustrade.According to historical evidence, Borobudur abandoned in the 14th century as the weakening influence of Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms in Java as well as starting the influence of Islam.  The world began to realize the existence of these buildings have since been found in 1814 by Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, who was then as the British Governor General of Java. Since then Borobudur has undergone a series of rescue and restoration efforts. Largest restoration project was held in the period 1975 to 1982 for the efforts the Government of the Republic of Indonesia and UNESCO, and historic sites are included in the list of World Heritage Sites.Borobudur is still used as a place of religious pilgrimage; each year Buddhists who came from all over Indonesia and abroad gather at Borobudur to commemorate Vesak Trisuci. In the world of tourism, Borobudur is a single tourist attraction in Indonesia's most visited tourist

In the Indonesian language, ancient religious buildings called Candi; term candi is also used more broadly to refer to all buildings and artifacts come from the Hindu-Buddhist in the archipelago, such as gates, arches, and petirtaan (swimming baths and showers). The origin of the name Borobudur is unclear, although it was the original name of many temples in Indonesia is not known. The name Borobudur was first written in the book "History of Java" by Sir Thomas Raffles. Raffles wrote about a monument called Borobudur, but none of the older documents that mention the exact same name. The only old Javanese manuscript that gives a clue as to the existence of a Buddhist shrine of Borobudur is probably referring to Nagarakretagama, written by mpu Prapanca in 1365.
Bore-Budur name, which is then written Borobudur, probably written Raffles in English grammar to refer to the closest village to the temple of the village of Bore (Boro); most temples are often named after the village where the temple stood. Raffles also suspect that the term 'Budur' may be related to the terms of Buda in the Java language, which means "ancient" - it means, 'ancient Boro'. However, other archaeologists assume that the name comes from the term bhudhara Budur which means mountain.
Many theories that attempt to explain the name of this temple. One of them states that the name is probably derived from the word Sambharabhudhara, which means "mountain" (bhudara) where the slopes are located terraces. In addition there are several other folk etymology. Suppose the word Borobudur derived from the words "the Buddha" is due to shift the sound to Borobudur. Another explanation is that the name comes from two words "bara (coal)" and "beduhur". The word bara said to have originated from the word monastery, while there is also another explanation in which the coal comes from Sanskrit which means temple or monastery and beduhur meaning is "high", or to remind the Balinese language means "above". So the point is a convent or dormitory located on high ground.
Historian J.G. de Casparis in his dissertation to earn his doctorate in 1950 argued that Borobudur is a place of worship. Based on the inscriptions and Tri
Tepusan Karangtengah , Casparis estimate of Borobudur founder of the dynasty was the king of Mataram dynasty named Samaratungga, who do the construction around 824 AD The giant new building can be completed at the time of her daughter, Queen Pramudawardhani. Construction of Borobudur estimated half-century time-consuming. In Karangtengah inscriptions also mentioned about the bestowal of land sima (tax-free land) by Cri Kahulunan (Pramudawardhani) to maintain Kamulan called Bhūmisambhāra. The term itself comes from the word Kamulan first which means place of origin, a shrine to honor the ancestors, probably the ancestor of the dynasty Sailendra. Casparis estimates that Bhumi Sambhāra Bhudhāra in Sanskrit which means "Mount of the set of ten levels boddhisattwa virtue", was the original name of Borobudur.  
The environment Borobudur, Pawon, and Mendut lying in one straight line which shows the symbol of unity
Located about 40 kilometers (25 miles) northwest of the city of Yogyakarta, Borobudur is situated on a hill on a plain surrounded by mount kembar of twins; Mount Sundoro-Sumbing in the northwest and Merbabu-Merapi in the northeast, in the north there is a
Tidar hill , closer to the south there is a range of Menoreh hills, as well as the temple is located near the confluence of two rivers namely Progo and the Elo River in the east. According to Javanese legend, the area known as the plains of Kedu is a place that is sacred in the belief of Java and hailed as 'Garden of the island of Java' because of its natural beauty and fertility of the soil.  
Three temple triad
In addition to Borobudur, there are several Buddhist and Hindu temples in the region. At the time of the discovery and restoration in the early 20th century found other Buddhist temples that Pawon and Mendut who lay stretched in a straight line. Initially thought to only a coincidence, but based on the tales of local residents, there was a stone-lined street balustrade that fenced on both sides that connects the third temple. No physical evidence of stone lined roads and fenced and this may only fairy tales, but experts suspect there is a symbol of the unity of the third temple. These three temples (Borobudur-Pawon-Mendut) have similar architectural style and variety of dressing and is derived from the same period the alleged strengthening linkages between the three rites of this temple. Linkage sacred there, but how was the religious rituals of pilgrimage is done, it is not certain. Apart from temples  Pawon
and Mendut, around Borobudur also found several other ancient relics, including a variety of findings such as pottery and stoneware which showed that around Borobudur first there are some residential areas. Not just how far north Pawon found ruins of a Hindu temple called Candi Banon. In this temple was found a few statues of Hindu gods in a state primary that is good enough Shiva, Vishnu, Brahma and Ganesha. However, the original stone temple Banon found very little so it is not possible to do reconstruction. At the time of its discovery Banon statues transported to Batavia (now Jakarta) and are now stored at the National Museum of Indonesia.


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